This blog reviews the latest products, plants and innovations in gardening. It also provides a link for my many gardening friends who are members of the GardenMessenger and Seedmessenger Yahoo groups and their sub-groups that I moderate.

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I am a semi-retired UK botanical garden curator and former international horticultural consultant, who has worked extensively in Europe, the Middle East, North America and Australia. I spend part of the year in Australia and part in Europe, mainly due to family and work commitments. I earn my living from writing and editing Internet copy, articles and books. I have written over fifty books on gardening and have been translated into twenty-four different languages. I am a former UK Garden Writer of the Year and a previous Quill & Trowel Award Winner from the Garden Writer’s Association of America. I am interested in developing gardening communities on the Internet and I manage the popular GardenMessenger Yahoo group, along with its various sub-groups like PondMessenger and SeedMessenger. I also edit International Water Gardener and its associated regional web-sites.

Thursday, October 05, 2006

Tracking and Controlling Mealybugs

The Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, is a devastating pest from south-east Asia, which originated in the United States from the Caribbean. It also has a strong foothold in Central America as well. This insect pest can destroy more than two hundred plant species by injecting them with toxic saliva while sucking their sap. The exotic insect pest recently invaded California and Florida, and has proved to be very difficult to monitor. However, United States Agricultural Research Services scientists have now found a way to lure male mealybugs, making them easier to detect. A team of researchers led by chemist Aijun Zhang at the Chemicals Affecting Insect Behavior Laboratory, in Beltsville, Maryland, has discovered two compounds that together make up the female PHM's sex pheromone. The compounds provide a timely method with which to monitor and ultimately reduce infestations.

The scientists carefully reared thousands of PHMs, using an insect growth regulator that prevents the development of males. Then they painstakingly isolated more than 6,000 virgin females from which they collected pheromone chemicals.After pooling seven collections of airborne sex-chemical extracts from the females, the scientists exposed them to male mealybugs' antennae, which consistently responded to two attractant compounds. The previously unknown natural chemicals were found to be (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate and (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate.
The researchers then prepared a synthetic version of the pheromone and further demonstrated that the processed mixture was immensely attractive to PHM males. They found the most potency when they mixed one part of the first compound with five parts of the second.

"In many cases, just a few micrograms of the one-to-five blend placed in a single sticky trap captured thousands of males," says Zhang. This blend is effective for monitoring the mealybug's population densities and geographical distribution to help scientists determine where to release natural enemies. "Pheromones decompose relatively quickly, without leaving a harmful residue or damage to the environment," says Zhang. Chemical insecticides, however, break down at a very slow rate, so they tend to linger in soil for decades, which can add to pollution. So biological control methods - where natural predators and parasitoids are used against horticultural pests - are more desirable.

Officials with USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, in Riverdale, Maryland, have introduced two exotic wasps to control PHM infestations in the United States and Caribbean. But their efforts had been stalled by an inability to detect the mealybug's presence and prevalence. Now, APHIS officials are using the new pheromone blend as a sex lure to survey the degree of mealybug pest infestations in Florida and California and to track the effectiveness of biological control efforts against the pest.

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